Saturday, 6 August 2011

Done My PRT assgmnt


Currently, Malaysia produced around 170,000 metric tons of bananas per year comprising about 90% dessert type and the remaining 10% are of the cooking type. It was estimated that within the cooking types about 50% were consumed as fritters and the remaining 50% were turned intochips. A survey was carried out to determine the banana chip processing industry in the country. In West Malaysia there are more than 200 banana chip processors and the majority of banana chip processors are located in the states of Johore, Perak and Selangor. The most popular products produced are salted banana chips, sweetened banana chips and the savoury banan  chips. Pisang Tandok and Pisang Abu Nipah are the main banana cultivar used in the chip industry. Most of the banana chip processors can be classified as micro-manufacturers with yearly sales of less than RM250, 000 and employing less than 5 full-time workers. Some banana  chip processors can be classified as small with yearly sales of RM250,000 to less than RM1million and employing between 5-50 full-time workers. Their technical strengths are development of their own processing technologies and their hands-on approach in designing and repairing of equipments and machineries. Their technical weaknesses include inconsistent supply
of good quality raw materials, lack of scientific knowledge in food processing, inadequate quality control and simple packaging, design and labeling. The strength of this banana chip business is the availability of established client. There is potential for the banana chip industry in Malaysia to further develop.

The Third National Agricultural Policy has listed banana as one of the 15 fruit types prioritized for commercial production. The popular dessert cultivars are Cavendish, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Mas and Pisang Rastali and the cooking cultivars are Pisang Tandok, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Raja, Pisang Awak, Pisang Abu Nipah and Pisang Kapas. Banana is a traditional crop in Malaysia and its banana production has been dominated by smallholders. The production system are characterized by small farm size, not well organized, low inputs, poor quality planting materials, thus resulting in poor yields and low fruit quality. There are a number of more organized large-scale growers with stronger financial outlay and better financing capability uses better quality and disease-free tissue-cultured planting materials, higher agronomic input and adopt modern technologies, sufficient pest and disease control management and good agricultural practices, thus obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. These large scale growersmainly produced the Cavendish bananas and other dessert cultivars such as Pisang Berangan.

Banana Production in Malaysia

Malaysia produces more than 170,000 metric tons of bananas per year from a production
area of more than 31,000 hectares. The banana production statistics in year 2000 is given
in Table 1. About 30% of the total production is exported, comprising mostly the dessert
varieties and the remainder is for the domestic market. Banana production in 2002
showed a slight decrease in acreage and the production acreage by states are presented in
Table 2. Domestic market estimates indicates that 90% of the bananas are of the dessert
types and 10% comprise the cooking bananas.

Table1. Banana Production Statistics (2000)
Production                                                                                                                         : 179,000 mt
Acreage                                                                                                                              : 33,600 ha
Av. Yield                                                                                                                            : 5.33 ton/ha
Export                                                                                                  : 31,000 mt (RM 33.02 million)
Import                                                                                                  : 300 mt (RM 0.4 million)
Balance of Trade                                                                                 : 30,700 mt (RM32.62 million)
Domestic supply                                                                                  : 148,000 mt
Per capita consumption                                                                     : 6.3 kg
Source: Balance of trade plan, Department of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, Malaysia

Table 2: Banana Production by States (2002)

States Hecterage
Johore                                                                                                                                         8776.5
Kedah                                                                                                                                          1430.1
Kelantan                                                                                                                                      2298.0
Malacca                                                                                                                                         183.6
Negri Sembilan                                                                                                                             503.6
Pahang                                                                                                                                         1789.2
Perak                                                                                                                                            3003.8
Perlis                                                                                                                                                  8.6
Penang                                                                                                                                           600.0
Selangor                                                                                                                                       2770.1
Trengganu                                                                                                                                     708.6
West Malaysia                                                                                                         (sub-total) 22,072.1
Sabah                                                                                                                                            4474.5
Sarawak                                                                                                                                       3616.0
Federal Territory/Labuan                                                                                                             70.0
TOTAL                                                                                                                                      31,233.6
Source: DOA, Commodity Statistics

Musa Processing Industry

Banana is a versatile plant with many uses and energy-rich due to their high content of starch and sugar and their rich source of vitamins and minerals. Various uses of banana are listed in Table 3. The cooking bananas are traditionally used for making fritters and chips. The Pisang Kapas was more popular for processing into figs. It was estimated that 50% of the cooking bananas was used as fritters and the other 50% was used for processing into chips.

Table 3. Product utilization of banana.
Plant parts
Recommended clones
Fruit - ripe
Traditional cakes
P. Mas, Cavendish
P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Berangan, P. Mas
P. Mas
P. Mas
P. Kapas, P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Nangka, P. Tandok, P. Gading, P.
Awak, P. Abu Nipah, P. Raja
Fruit - mature
P. Tandok, P. Gading, P. Abu Nipah
P. Raja, P. Mas, P. Berangan
Wrapper (local delicacies)
Wild banana
All types
Male buds
P. Berangan, some wild types, others
All types

The objective of this paper is to deal with the cooking types of banana and the downstream activities in the value-adding of banana especially in the processing of banana chips. A limited survey of the number of banana chip processors showed that there are more than 200 banana chip processors throughout West Malaysia (Table 4). The number of processors in each states somewhat reflect the acreage of banana grown in that particular state (Table 2). Johore with the largest acreage has the largest number of processors at 77 followed by Perak and Selangor each with 40 and 29 processors, respectively. However, most of the processors are very small backyard processors trying to value-add their produce and increase their income. Nevertheless, there are several processors producing banana chips commercially with several product types and having established clients.

Table 4. Banana Chip Processors by States in West Malaysia.

No. Chip

Negeri Sembilan

Sumber: IAT Jabatan Pertanian.

An in-depth evaluation of the Musa processing business was conducted in the district of Kuala Langat in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. As we have no information regarding the banana processing industry, the strategy was to look at a processing plant perceived to be operating at a higher, moderate and small capacity. Another approach is to look at the number of years the processing business has been operating commercially. The classifications and definitions of the scale of a business based on the type of industry have been officially determined by the government. The detailed breakdown is shown in Table 5. Based on the stated strategies 3 banana processing businesses were evaluated.

Table 5. Malaysian Industrial Sector: Categories and definitions.

                                          Definition                       Yearly Sales                            No. Full Time

                                         Micro                              < RM250,000                                      <5
                                         Small                                   RM250,000                  - < RM1 million 5 - 50
                                         Medium                               RM10 million            – RM25 million 51 -                                          `                                                                                                                                           150
(including Agrobased
                                              Large                            > RM25 million                                 > 150
                                              Micro                            < RM200,000                                     < 5
                                              Small RM200,000         – RM I million                                    5 – 19
                                              Medium RM1 million  – RM5 million                                    20 - 50
                                                Large                                 > RM5 million                                > 50
                                                Micro                                < RM200,000                                      < 5
                                                Small                                   RM200,000               – RM1 million 5 - 19
                                                Medium                              RM1 million          – RM5 million 20 – 50
Large > RM5 million > 50

Clients of the banana product:

New clients are identified by informal means through the consumers and traders.Basically there are no advertising and promotion but the company has a signage to indicate the location of the company. The main competitors are the producers from the surrounding areas but there is not much competition in the state of Selangor. Them competitors studied and analyzed by comparing the products and prices. Substitute products are tapioca chips and dhall chips. About 80% of the clients are direct consumers and the remaining 20% are traders who repack the chips. Although traders constitute 20 percent of clients (in terms of number), they are the main buyer in terms of quantity and value purchased. This company relied on the services and suppliers of raw materials, cooking oil, diesel oil
and packaging materials. Payment for these services is by partial cash and credit. Normally one month credit is given or a staggered payment over a month duration. For special services or emergencies, the company has their resources. Minor repair to equipments are personally attended to by the owner, otherwise the fabricator of the equipment will be consulted. For  regulations and licensing, the service of MARDI has been requested. Finances and bookkeeping are normally conducted by the family but sometimes a small accounting firm was consulted. The company would like to see research on product diversification in relation to flavour and improvement of shelf life. (This company has an established number of clients. There are 12 bulk purchasers that the company delivers the products. In addition there are 80 regular bulk purchasers at the factory as well as numerous numbers of direct consumers. These bulk purchasers repack the product for trading.

Factors affecting yield performance of banana farms.....

In terms of distance of farm to residence of the banana grower, the negative and significant coefficient at 5 percent probability level indicates that banana growers who live far from their farms experience lower yield. The great distance to reach the farm prevents banana growers in visiting their farms more often; hence, they could not perform the proper cultural management which includes pruning, thinning, integrated pest management, weeding and cultivation, and flower and fruit management.

Problems and Constraints in Banana Production

Limited supply of high-yielding and disease-free banana planting materials was the foremost problem encountered by more than half (53%) of the banana respondents in Oriental Mindoro. Tissue-cultured planting materials were inadequate and costly, thus, banana growers in the,province opted to use planting materials derived from their own farms or those from their neighbors or relatives. Some of these were carriers of pests and infected by diseases which result to low banana yield. Another major problem reported by 37 percent of the banana respondents was high incidence of pests and diseases. Rats had eaten banana fruits while aphids had served as vectors of a disease called bunchy top. The common diseases occurring in banana farms located in Oriental Mindoro were bugtok for Saba and bunchy top for Lakatan and Latundan. Bugtok is caused by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum. It enters the plant through tiny openings at the top of
Item Coefficient t-value

Intercept                                                                                           4.3094** 2.5901
Regression Coefficients
Fertilizer/ha                                                                                      0.0007*** 3.4946
Labor/ha                                                                                           0.5990*** 4.0053
Planting material cost/ha                                                               (0.00005) (0.2916)
Number of stalks/ha                                                                        0.1607 1.3003
Tenurial status                                                                                 0.3570* 1.8152
Types of banana cultivar grown                                                     0.5163*** 2.9813
Intercrops                                                                                         (0.2287) (1.4466)
Topography                                                                                      (0.0073) (0.0527)
Soil type                                                                                             0.5672*** 3.1002
Distance between hills                                                                      0.3948** 2.3743
Education                                                                                          (0.1038) (0.5471)
Farming experience                                                                          0.1029 0.8921
Age of the banana grower                                                                0.0583 0.1749
Gender of the banana grower                                                         (0.2365) (1.2770)
Household size                                                                                  0.0099 0.0522
Distance of farm to residence of the banana grower                    (0.0821)** (2.1167

Reserves for increasing crop yield bananas

My opinion, to increase the yield of crops based on bananas, each agency and the farmers must play an important role. For example, the government provides isentif to small farmers who wish to undertake the banana chips on a small scale. like to set up machinery, processing, training to increase skills of small farmers, especially women. For government agencies, like Mardi, they should always find the latest variety, and resistance to disease in order to increase revenue and to provide returns that lumayan.Jabatan Agricultural, should be more sensitive to current issues and complaints of farmers on how to help farmers menrurangkan farm operating costs with systems that are more progressive and forward, such as agricultural technology in Thailand if you want our country compared to Malaysia.


For overall industry of product base on Agriculture can  give more expectation salary and income. Expecially product from Banana can go far and acceptable of everyone. especially in terms ekomonomi countries and agro-based industries. By indirectly it can help small entrepreneurs familiarized herself in agriculture. Development of banana farming industry is, for me inyanya great potential and fast. Usually it is for intercropping as I care districts in Negeri Sembilan Gemas., Each farmer TKPM (Permanent Food Production Plant) is the main crop is the jack. They took the opportunity to plant banana trees to cover the cost of farm operations. vast 122 ha. This period is also a brief collection of revenue in 7 to 9 months.

*    Buku perangkaan Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia

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