Sunday, 14 August 2011

Padan Muka Aku....

Ha..ha.... orang penah berkata.... Jangan Terlalu over confident dengan sesuatu benda... Ha... Sekarang Ayat ni benar2 dah terkena kat batang hidung aku sendiri. Yelah..... Kisahnya hari ni aku ada test ICT...
Kononnya malaslah nak translatekan semua note ICT dalam BM. so aku pon dok terus menghafal berpuluh2 kali dalam BI.... Habis semuanya aku baca.... baca... dan Hafal....
Kononnya nanti dapat full Mark lah kalu jawap test nanti....

Kesudahannya..... soklan 1, 2 boleh lagi aku jawap .... Last2 masuk aje.... dah bahagian C nak kena huraian ..... MAMPOS satu kejadah pon aku tak dapat jawap..... Lupa satu point.... semua Hilang.....


Tension . n thn g join bebudak ni makan chiken hart........................

Wednesday, 10 August 2011

Go..Go... Exam ....

Sekejap je rasanya dah nak final exam. tak me lagi dah nak masuk sem baru.. Sejak akhir2 ni asgmnt terlalu banyak sampai tak sempat nak meluahkan dan mengupdate blog ni....  Malam tadi aku tido kul 4 a.m siapkan report Kenegaraan. Bengkak mata dah ni... dah lah mata aku tersedia bengkak.  Nasiblah pagi ni takde class. 

Tapi kul 2 .00 pm ni stard pulak dah dengan clas Admate . sampai kul 4.30 ptg, pastu malam sambung lagi add mate.... sebab tak me lagi nak exam sume bab... Risaulah  subjek ni dah lah ... Takut aku kena Repeat paper... Kalu boleh aku tak mahu! tak Mahu repeat! so aku kena rebus buku  mate ni n minum air nye.... ha..ha...

Nasiblah ade setengah bab aku dah dapat cover sikit coz my hubby ajar aku time cuti ritu...Kan best kalu aku dapat otak  genius cam hubby aku dah bertahun tinggal subject ni pon still leh ajar wife dier yang tak bape nak pandai ni.... atleast dapatlah markah atas 50 pun ok....  napelah subjek ni Takleh nak drop?? Menyusahkan aku betul....Grrrr stress.... Jerawat pon dah bertimbum dah ni.... macam gunung berapi sana sini!!!!

Tuesday, 9 August 2011

Genetic Enginering( My Presentation)


Benefits of Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering facilitates the manipulation and duplication of DNA pieces, for industrial, medical and research purposes. Genetic engineering has produced a revolution in molecular biology. Benefits of Genetic Engineering are experienced in whole array of fields especially in agriculture, in production of valuable proteins and vaccine production.

Benefits of Genetic Engineering in Agriculture
The production of technologies based on genetic engineering is often referred as modern biotechnology. With the improvement of genetic engineering techniques, the time for generating and evaluating new germplasm (a collection of genetic resources for an organism) can be drastically reduced. Genetic engineering may ultimately have their most significant effect on agriculture. Recent advances have raised possibility of development of new plant germplasm through introduction of any gene from any organism into plant.
With respect to agriculture, modern biotechnology has been considered as the second phase of green revolution. Organisms whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called genetically modified organism (GMO). The working of GMO is due to nature of transferred genes, nature of host organism and food web formed. Some useful benefits of genetically modified plants in agricultural biotechnology are:

1.      Improved nutritional quality
2.      Better Nitrogen Fixation
3.      Disease resistant Plant
4.      Enhanced efficiency of minerals used by plants to prevent early exhaustion of fertility of soil.
5.      Reduced post harvest losses

Another genetically modified food is golden rice (Pro Vitamin Pic A enriched). Several other genetically modified foods include, soybeans, corn, cotton, seed oil etc have been formed. But many controversies are associated with genetically modified food including environment and human safety, ethics, food security, poverty reduction etc.

Some success has been achieved in developing varieties resistant to herbicides, viral diseases and insect pest. Genetic engineering promises rapid acceleration of plant breeding efforts for crop improvement.

Benefits of genetic engineering: Production of valuable Proteins
Another benefit of genetic engineering is realized in production of valuable proteins. Recombinant DNA made possible the use of bacteria to produce proteins of medical importance. One such example is that of genetically engineered human insulin which is of great importance and now marketed throughout the world.
Some important genetically engineered proteins include:

Human Insulin

Human insulin or Humulin has great importance. Earlier, patients could not tolerate pig insulin, as it has slightly different amino acid sequence as compared to human. Humulin eventually became cheaper than that extracted from animal pancreas and is now available.

Interferon is an antiviral agent which is secreted by cells which are attacked by virus. Several types of genetically engineered interferon are available in market and gives rise to antitumoral effect (thwarting formation of cancerous tumors).

Growth hormone

In humans, growth hormone helps in treatment of hypopituitary dwarfs. Genetically engineered growth hormones may prove useful in the treatment of bone fractures, skin burns and bleeding ulcers of digestive tract. The human hormone is marketed in United States and bovine hormone is expected to yield bigger cattle and thus more beef. Hence growth hormones are commercially very demanding.

Benefits of genetic engineering: Vaccine production
Vaccines produced by genetic engineering offer an advantage that the microbial strains from which the proteins are extracted do not contain complete viruses. And thus, there are no risks of accidental inoculation with live virus.
Cloning directly into vaccinia virus DNA holds great promise, although vaccines so produced are not yet in the market. Recombinant vaccinia viruses for example, a gene from genital herpes virus within its DNA, can multiply and can subsequently be inoculated into humans. The vaccinia virus produces mild infection, and expresses some of herpes virus protein and produces immunity. Vaccines can be produced using recombinant DNA technology or using cell culture. Vaccines of common use are usually produced by cell cultures or animals. Such vaccines contain weakened or inactivated pathogens. Crop plants can bear cheaper bioreactors to produce antigens to be utilized as Edible vaccines. These edible vaccines are said to be a cheap alternative as compared to recombinant vaccines.
The transgenic plants are treated as edible vaccines and consumption of these transgenic plants viz. transgenic banana and tomato cure diseases like Cholera and Hepatitis-B. Foot and mouth diseases can be cured by feeding them transgenic sugar beet.  In the near future, these vaccines can be used as conventional vaccines.
Humulin was the first therapeutic product to be made commercially by genetically engineered bacterium. Recently a genetically engineered malarial vaccine SPF – 66 has been produced.

Benefits of Genetic Engineering: Production of Disease Resistant Plants
Genetic engineering, promises to have an enormous impact on the improvement of crop species. Genetic transformation can boost plant breeding efforts for developing disease resistant varieties. Now the disease resistant genes can be isolated and transferred to high yielding susceptible plants to produce pathogen free plants. Through gene sequencing, it is possible to locate gene and after identification, gene is isolated and transferred to the host. Several disease resistant somaclones have been identified for resistance to severe potato disease, early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria Solani. Scientists are using Agrobacterium gene transfer system to produce tobacco plants with increased resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).
Insect resistant plants are also developed, using biotechnological applications. Several biopesticides are developed e.g. Bt cotton, Bt corn, rice, tomato, potato, and soybeans etc.

Bt signifies Bacillus thuringiences. This bacterium contains insect toxin gene. Bt toxin gene is cloned from the bacteria and expressed in plant to provide resistance from insects, without requirement of insecticides. These modified disease resistant plants are called transgenic plants.

Top of Form

1.Plastic Plants

So that we would not have to be dependent on petroleum-based plastics, some scientists have genetically engineered plants that produce plastic within their stem structures. They claim that it biodegrades in about six months. If the genes escape into the wild, through cross-pollination with wild relatives or by other means, then we face the prospect of natural areas littered with the plastic spines of decayed leaves. However aesthetically repugnant that may seem, the plastic also poses a real danger. It has the potential for disrupting entire food-chains. It can be eaten by invertebrates, which are in turn eaten, and so forth. If primary foods are inedible or poisonous, then whole food-chains can die off.

2.Assessing the Price

For all the advantages claimed for genetic engineering, in the overwhelming number of cases the price seems too high to pay. In order to ensure megaprofits for multinational corporations well into the next century, we will have to mortgage the biosphere, seriously compromise life on the planet, and even risk losing what it means to be a human being. Genetic engineering poses serious risks to human health and to the environment. It raises serious ethical questions about the right of human beings to alter life on the planet for the benefit and curiosity of a few. 

3.Human Genes

As more and more human genes are being inserted into non-human organisms to create new forms of life that are genetically partly human, new ethical questions arise. What percent of human genes does an organism have to contain before it is considered human? For instance, how many human genes would a green pepper have to contain before you would have qualms about eating it? This is not merely a hypothetical query. The Chinese are now putting human genes into tomatoes and peppers to make them grow faster. You can now be a vegetarian and a cannibal at the same time! For meat-eaters, the same question could be posed about eating pork with human genes. What about the mice that have been genetically engineered to produce human sperm? How would you feel if your father was a genetically engineered move
4.Imprecise Technology
A genetic engineer moves genes from one organism to another. A gene can be cut precisely from the DNA of an organism, but the insertion into the DNA of the target organism is basically random. As a consequence, there is a risk that it may disrupt the functioning of other genes essential to the life of that organism.

5.Side Effects
Genetic engineering is like performing heart surgery with a shovel. Scientists do not yet understand living systems completely enough to perform DNA surgery without creating mutations which could be harmful to the environment and our health. They are experimenting with very delicate, yet powerful forces of nature, without full knowledge of the repercussions

6.Widespread Crop Failure
.Genetic engineers intend to profit by patenting genetically engineered seeds. This means that, when a farmer plants genetically engineered seeds, all the seeds have identical genetic structure. As a result, if a fungus, a virus, or a pest develops which can attack this particular crop, there could be widespread crop failur

7.Threatens Our Entire Food Supply
Insects, birds, and wind can carry genetically altered seeds into neighboring fields and beyond. Pollen from transgenic plants can cross-pollinate with genetically natural crops and wild relatives. All crops, organic and non-organic, are vulnerable to contamination from cross-pollinatation

Health Hazards
1.No Long-Term Safety Testing—Genetic engineering uses material from organisms that have never been part of the human food supply to change the fundamental nature of the food we eat. Without long-term testing no one knows if these foods are safe. 
2.Toxins—Genetic engineering can cause unexpected mutations in an organism, which can create new and higher levels of toxins in foods. (Inose 1995, Mayeno 1994) 
3.Allergic Reactions—Genetic engineering can also produce unforeseen and unknown allergens in foods. (Nordlee 1996) 
4.Decreased Nutritional Value—Transgenic foods may mislead consumers with counterfeit freshness. A luscious-looking, bright red genetically engineered tomato could be several weeks old and of little nutritional worth. 
5Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria—Genetic engineers use antibiotic-resistance genes to mark genetically engineered cells. This means that genetically engineered crops contain genes which confer resistance to antibiotics. These genes may be picked up by bacteria which may infect us. (New Scientist 1999) 
6.Problems Cannot Be Traced—Without labels, our public health agencies are powerless to trace problems of any kind back to their source. The potential for tragedy is staggering. 
7.Side Effects can Kill—37 people died, 1500 were partially paralyzed, and 5000 more were temporarily disabled by a syndrome that was finally linked to tryptophan made by genetically-engineered bacteria. (Mayeno 1994)
Environmental Hazards
  1. Increased use of Herbicides—Scientists estimate that plants genetically engineered to be herbicide-resistant will greatly increase the amount of herbicide use. (Benbrook 1999) Farmers, knowing that their crops can tolerate the herbicides, will use them more liberally. 
  2. More Pesticides—GE crops often manufacture their own pesticides and may be classified as pesticides by the EPA. This strategy will put more pesticides into our food and fields than ever before. 
  3. Ecology may be damaged—The influence of a genetically engineered organism on the food chain may damage the local ecology. The new organism may compete successfully with wild relatives, causing unforeseen changes in the environment. (Metz 1997) 
  4. Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up
Once genetically engineered organisms, bacteria and viruses are released into the environment it is impossible to contain or recall them. Unlike chemical or nuclear contamination, negative effects are irreversible.

Saturday, 6 August 2011

Done My PRT assgmnt


Currently, Malaysia produced around 170,000 metric tons of bananas per year comprising about 90% dessert type and the remaining 10% are of the cooking type. It was estimated that within the cooking types about 50% were consumed as fritters and the remaining 50% were turned intochips. A survey was carried out to determine the banana chip processing industry in the country. In West Malaysia there are more than 200 banana chip processors and the majority of banana chip processors are located in the states of Johore, Perak and Selangor. The most popular products produced are salted banana chips, sweetened banana chips and the savoury banan  chips. Pisang Tandok and Pisang Abu Nipah are the main banana cultivar used in the chip industry. Most of the banana chip processors can be classified as micro-manufacturers with yearly sales of less than RM250, 000 and employing less than 5 full-time workers. Some banana  chip processors can be classified as small with yearly sales of RM250,000 to less than RM1million and employing between 5-50 full-time workers. Their technical strengths are development of their own processing technologies and their hands-on approach in designing and repairing of equipments and machineries. Their technical weaknesses include inconsistent supply
of good quality raw materials, lack of scientific knowledge in food processing, inadequate quality control and simple packaging, design and labeling. The strength of this banana chip business is the availability of established client. There is potential for the banana chip industry in Malaysia to further develop.

The Third National Agricultural Policy has listed banana as one of the 15 fruit types prioritized for commercial production. The popular dessert cultivars are Cavendish, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Mas and Pisang Rastali and the cooking cultivars are Pisang Tandok, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Raja, Pisang Awak, Pisang Abu Nipah and Pisang Kapas. Banana is a traditional crop in Malaysia and its banana production has been dominated by smallholders. The production system are characterized by small farm size, not well organized, low inputs, poor quality planting materials, thus resulting in poor yields and low fruit quality. There are a number of more organized large-scale growers with stronger financial outlay and better financing capability uses better quality and disease-free tissue-cultured planting materials, higher agronomic input and adopt modern technologies, sufficient pest and disease control management and good agricultural practices, thus obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. These large scale growersmainly produced the Cavendish bananas and other dessert cultivars such as Pisang Berangan.

Banana Production in Malaysia

Malaysia produces more than 170,000 metric tons of bananas per year from a production
area of more than 31,000 hectares. The banana production statistics in year 2000 is given
in Table 1. About 30% of the total production is exported, comprising mostly the dessert
varieties and the remainder is for the domestic market. Banana production in 2002
showed a slight decrease in acreage and the production acreage by states are presented in
Table 2. Domestic market estimates indicates that 90% of the bananas are of the dessert
types and 10% comprise the cooking bananas.

Table1. Banana Production Statistics (2000)
Production                                                                                                                         : 179,000 mt
Acreage                                                                                                                              : 33,600 ha
Av. Yield                                                                                                                            : 5.33 ton/ha
Export                                                                                                  : 31,000 mt (RM 33.02 million)
Import                                                                                                  : 300 mt (RM 0.4 million)
Balance of Trade                                                                                 : 30,700 mt (RM32.62 million)
Domestic supply                                                                                  : 148,000 mt
Per capita consumption                                                                     : 6.3 kg
Source: Balance of trade plan, Department of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, Malaysia

Table 2: Banana Production by States (2002)

States Hecterage
Johore                                                                                                                                         8776.5
Kedah                                                                                                                                          1430.1
Kelantan                                                                                                                                      2298.0
Malacca                                                                                                                                         183.6
Negri Sembilan                                                                                                                             503.6
Pahang                                                                                                                                         1789.2
Perak                                                                                                                                            3003.8
Perlis                                                                                                                                                  8.6
Penang                                                                                                                                           600.0
Selangor                                                                                                                                       2770.1
Trengganu                                                                                                                                     708.6
West Malaysia                                                                                                         (sub-total) 22,072.1
Sabah                                                                                                                                            4474.5
Sarawak                                                                                                                                       3616.0
Federal Territory/Labuan                                                                                                             70.0
TOTAL                                                                                                                                      31,233.6
Source: DOA, Commodity Statistics

Musa Processing Industry

Banana is a versatile plant with many uses and energy-rich due to their high content of starch and sugar and their rich source of vitamins and minerals. Various uses of banana are listed in Table 3. The cooking bananas are traditionally used for making fritters and chips. The Pisang Kapas was more popular for processing into figs. It was estimated that 50% of the cooking bananas was used as fritters and the other 50% was used for processing into chips.

Table 3. Product utilization of banana.
Plant parts
Recommended clones
Fruit - ripe
Traditional cakes
P. Mas, Cavendish
P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Berangan, P. Mas
P. Mas
P. Mas
P. Kapas, P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Mas, P. Berangan
P. Nangka, P. Tandok, P. Gading, P.
Awak, P. Abu Nipah, P. Raja
Fruit - mature
P. Tandok, P. Gading, P. Abu Nipah
P. Raja, P. Mas, P. Berangan
Wrapper (local delicacies)
Wild banana
All types
Male buds
P. Berangan, some wild types, others
All types

The objective of this paper is to deal with the cooking types of banana and the downstream activities in the value-adding of banana especially in the processing of banana chips. A limited survey of the number of banana chip processors showed that there are more than 200 banana chip processors throughout West Malaysia (Table 4). The number of processors in each states somewhat reflect the acreage of banana grown in that particular state (Table 2). Johore with the largest acreage has the largest number of processors at 77 followed by Perak and Selangor each with 40 and 29 processors, respectively. However, most of the processors are very small backyard processors trying to value-add their produce and increase their income. Nevertheless, there are several processors producing banana chips commercially with several product types and having established clients.

Table 4. Banana Chip Processors by States in West Malaysia.

No. Chip

Negeri Sembilan

Sumber: IAT Jabatan Pertanian.

An in-depth evaluation of the Musa processing business was conducted in the district of Kuala Langat in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. As we have no information regarding the banana processing industry, the strategy was to look at a processing plant perceived to be operating at a higher, moderate and small capacity. Another approach is to look at the number of years the processing business has been operating commercially. The classifications and definitions of the scale of a business based on the type of industry have been officially determined by the government. The detailed breakdown is shown in Table 5. Based on the stated strategies 3 banana processing businesses were evaluated.

Table 5. Malaysian Industrial Sector: Categories and definitions.

                                          Definition                       Yearly Sales                            No. Full Time

                                         Micro                              < RM250,000                                      <5
                                         Small                                   RM250,000                  - < RM1 million 5 - 50
                                         Medium                               RM10 million            – RM25 million 51 -                                          `                                                                                                                                           150
(including Agrobased
                                              Large                            > RM25 million                                 > 150
                                              Micro                            < RM200,000                                     < 5
                                              Small RM200,000         – RM I million                                    5 – 19
                                              Medium RM1 million  – RM5 million                                    20 - 50
                                                Large                                 > RM5 million                                > 50
                                                Micro                                < RM200,000                                      < 5
                                                Small                                   RM200,000               – RM1 million 5 - 19
                                                Medium                              RM1 million          – RM5 million 20 – 50
Large > RM5 million > 50

Clients of the banana product:

New clients are identified by informal means through the consumers and traders.Basically there are no advertising and promotion but the company has a signage to indicate the location of the company. The main competitors are the producers from the surrounding areas but there is not much competition in the state of Selangor. Them competitors studied and analyzed by comparing the products and prices. Substitute products are tapioca chips and dhall chips. About 80% of the clients are direct consumers and the remaining 20% are traders who repack the chips. Although traders constitute 20 percent of clients (in terms of number), they are the main buyer in terms of quantity and value purchased. This company relied on the services and suppliers of raw materials, cooking oil, diesel oil
and packaging materials. Payment for these services is by partial cash and credit. Normally one month credit is given or a staggered payment over a month duration. For special services or emergencies, the company has their resources. Minor repair to equipments are personally attended to by the owner, otherwise the fabricator of the equipment will be consulted. For  regulations and licensing, the service of MARDI has been requested. Finances and bookkeeping are normally conducted by the family but sometimes a small accounting firm was consulted. The company would like to see research on product diversification in relation to flavour and improvement of shelf life. (This company has an established number of clients. There are 12 bulk purchasers that the company delivers the products. In addition there are 80 regular bulk purchasers at the factory as well as numerous numbers of direct consumers. These bulk purchasers repack the product for trading.

Factors affecting yield performance of banana farms.....

In terms of distance of farm to residence of the banana grower, the negative and significant coefficient at 5 percent probability level indicates that banana growers who live far from their farms experience lower yield. The great distance to reach the farm prevents banana growers in visiting their farms more often; hence, they could not perform the proper cultural management which includes pruning, thinning, integrated pest management, weeding and cultivation, and flower and fruit management.

Problems and Constraints in Banana Production

Limited supply of high-yielding and disease-free banana planting materials was the foremost problem encountered by more than half (53%) of the banana respondents in Oriental Mindoro. Tissue-cultured planting materials were inadequate and costly, thus, banana growers in the,province opted to use planting materials derived from their own farms or those from their neighbors or relatives. Some of these were carriers of pests and infected by diseases which result to low banana yield. Another major problem reported by 37 percent of the banana respondents was high incidence of pests and diseases. Rats had eaten banana fruits while aphids had served as vectors of a disease called bunchy top. The common diseases occurring in banana farms located in Oriental Mindoro were bugtok for Saba and bunchy top for Lakatan and Latundan. Bugtok is caused by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum. It enters the plant through tiny openings at the top of
Item Coefficient t-value

Intercept                                                                                           4.3094** 2.5901
Regression Coefficients
Fertilizer/ha                                                                                      0.0007*** 3.4946
Labor/ha                                                                                           0.5990*** 4.0053
Planting material cost/ha                                                               (0.00005) (0.2916)
Number of stalks/ha                                                                        0.1607 1.3003
Tenurial status                                                                                 0.3570* 1.8152
Types of banana cultivar grown                                                     0.5163*** 2.9813
Intercrops                                                                                         (0.2287) (1.4466)
Topography                                                                                      (0.0073) (0.0527)
Soil type                                                                                             0.5672*** 3.1002
Distance between hills                                                                      0.3948** 2.3743
Education                                                                                          (0.1038) (0.5471)
Farming experience                                                                          0.1029 0.8921
Age of the banana grower                                                                0.0583 0.1749
Gender of the banana grower                                                         (0.2365) (1.2770)
Household size                                                                                  0.0099 0.0522
Distance of farm to residence of the banana grower                    (0.0821)** (2.1167

Reserves for increasing crop yield bananas

My opinion, to increase the yield of crops based on bananas, each agency and the farmers must play an important role. For example, the government provides isentif to small farmers who wish to undertake the banana chips on a small scale. like to set up machinery, processing, training to increase skills of small farmers, especially women. For government agencies, like Mardi, they should always find the latest variety, and resistance to disease in order to increase revenue and to provide returns that lumayan.Jabatan Agricultural, should be more sensitive to current issues and complaints of farmers on how to help farmers menrurangkan farm operating costs with systems that are more progressive and forward, such as agricultural technology in Thailand if you want our country compared to Malaysia.


For overall industry of product base on Agriculture can  give more expectation salary and income. Expecially product from Banana can go far and acceptable of everyone. especially in terms ekomonomi countries and agro-based industries. By indirectly it can help small entrepreneurs familiarized herself in agriculture. Development of banana farming industry is, for me inyanya great potential and fast. Usually it is for intercropping as I care districts in Negeri Sembilan Gemas., Each farmer TKPM (Permanent Food Production Plant) is the main crop is the jack. They took the opportunity to plant banana trees to cover the cost of farm operations. vast 122 ha. This period is also a brief collection of revenue in 7 to 9 months.

*    Buku perangkaan Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia

TeRbaik Dari LadanG.....Just Click

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...